Although other network protocols such as UUCP had global reach well before this time, this marked the beginning of the Internet as an intercontinental network.
Kirstein's research group in the United Kingdom, initially at the Institute of Computer Science, University of London and later at University College London.
Commercial Internet service providers (ISPs) emerged in the late 1980s and early 1990s. By 1995, the Internet was fully commercialized in the U. when the NSFNet was decommissioned, removing the last restrictions on use of the Internet to carry commercial traffic.
The beginning of dedicated transatlantic communication between the NSFNET and networks in Europe was established with a low-speed satellite relay between Princeton University and Stockholm, Sweden in December 1988.
Most traditional communications media, including telephony, radio, television, paper mail and newspapers are reshaped, redefined, or even bypassed by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as email, Internet telephony, Internet television, online music, digital newspapers, and video streaming websites.
Newspaper, book, and other print publishing are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into blogging, web feeds and online news aggregators.