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Estrogenic responses occur at concentrations similar to those at which chronic toxicity occurs, although biochemical and histological changes have been reported at concentrations a factor of 10 lower. The relative importance and significance of estrogenic responses in aquatic organisms to the individual or population are not currently well understood. Acute flow through toxicity of nonylphenol to sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus). These products are NP, nonylphenol ethoxylate (NP1EO), nonylphenol diethoxylate (NP2EO), nonylphenoxyacetic acid (NP1EC) and nonylphenoxyethoxyacetic acid (NP2EC). NPEs can be biodegraded through a mechanism of stepwise loss of ethoxy groups to form lower ethoxylated congeners, carboxylated products and NP.

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NPEs are high-volume chemicals that have been used for more than 40 years as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents and dispersing agents. NP is, however, 100 000 times less potent than estradiol. Bioconcentration test with nonylphenol and the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). In one study, NP2EO and NP1EC were only slightly less potent than NP in inducing vitellogenin in trout hepatocytes. Prepared for the Chemical Manufacturers Association by Resource Analysts, Hampton, New Hampshire (Study No. These products have numerous applications, including controlling deposits on machinery, cleaning equipment, scouring fibres, as wetting and de-wetting agents, in dyeing, in machine felt cleaning and conditioning and in product finishing. NPEs are also used in a wide range of consumer products, including cosmetics, cleaners and paints, and in a variety of applications.

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